Originally published August 2010.
Across my native USA, I whenever neighbours or townspeople lobby for
more bus and rail services, pundits and politicians usually sputter
something like this:
Trains and buses are a waste of taxpayers’ money. There’s no reason for them to exist. Look at the ones we have now – they’re mostly empty.
who’s ridden a bus or train recently knows that’s not even remotely
true. Buses and trains are often filled to capacity, here and in America
– I’m writing this from a tight squeeze in a packed double-decker. Even
if those critics were right, however, they never apply that same logic
to cars, for they never say:
Asphalt is a waste of taxpayers’ money, and so are highway overpasses, parking garages, car parks, traffic signals, streetlights, traffic cops and auto company bailouts. Look at the cars we have now – they’re mostly empty.
might be the most under-appreciated factor in how much fuel and money
you waste. As I write this, for example, a business headline boasts of
Toyota’s multi-million-dollar plan to boost fuel efficiency by 25
percent, with the usual discussion of what this will mean for the
economy and the climate. Any of us, however, can boost the efficiency of
our cars by several hundred percent instantly, with no additional
expense or technology, simply by getting more people in the car.
fact is also forgotten when we judge car owners by the wastefulness of
their vehicles. An SUV is a spectacularly inefficient machine compared
to a Prius, for example, but pack that Dodge Durango full of people and
suddenly it is greener than the electric hybrid driven alone.
use another example, your bus could be less efficient than an SUV in
kilometers-per-litre, yet all of you bus passengers are making one of
the greenest transportation choices around, thanks to the fact that so
many seats are filled.
One of the easiest ways of cutting your
expenses, fuel and carbon footprint, then, is simply to share rides with
other people. Since most of us travel similar routes from clusters of
houses to clusters of offices, there is no reason why carpooling should
not work for most of us.
to the website carfinance.ie, the average car in Ireland, driven 10,000
kilometers a year, will cost 1,750 euros in petrol. Divide that by four
people, however, and you each save 1,300 a year. Carpooling could even
pay for itself, if you propose to friends and co-workers that they pay
you slightly more than the cost of fuel, as compensation for driving a
little out of your way.
Some people might think they want to
listen to music or a podcast on the way rather than talk to other
people, and there’s no reason you can’t do even if the car is crowded.
Most people, however, could do with more company. A June 2006 study in
the American Sociological Review found that the number of close friends
people say they have fell by a third in the previous 20 years.
people don’t go to poker nights or Kiwanis meetings anymore, and the
number of people who know their neighbours has also fallen, but the
number of hours spent commuting has more than doubled in the last few
decades. Most studies show us lonelier and more stressed than people of
previous generations, probably because we spend less and less of our
lives being the social animals we evolved to be, and more and more
staring at glowing rectangles.
Perhaps this paranoia about human
company is one reason so few of us have taken up carpooling, no matter
how much money they would save. A brief internet search shows that while
more web sites encourage people to carpool, many people seem fearful of
meeting strangers. “How could I possibly trust that the people … I’d
travel with are honest guys and not awful criminals?” asked one blogger –
sentiments typical of many comments on the subject, even though
criminals are unlikely to use a morning carpooling route as their cover
for a nefarious plan.
this with the 1930s or 40s, when regular people carpooled, hitchhiked
and picked up hitchhikers, and movies and other media showed this as
normal. In wartime USA and Britain carpooling, like many other self-sufficient
activities, was declared a patriotic duty – propaganda posters warned
against people who selfishly took up a whole car to themselves, or who
let the troops down by wasting energy. Hollywood movies showed stars
carpooling, Dr. Seuss drew cartoons about how many people you could pack
in a car, scoutmasters gave speeches about saving fuel and money.
did the posters approach carpooling as a nice way to enjoy the morning
or as a hip new part of eco-fashion; rather, they could be stern in a
way that few advertisements are today. “Hitler rides in the empty seat,”
said one typical poster. People need this. We are counting on you.
Today many people, in many countries, are struggling again. It’s not exactly war, and not like any
previous Depression. It does have a home front, though, and could
benefit from some of the same solutions that were understood to be so
sensible, for so long.
Wednesday, 21 January 2015
"Why are you hoisting sail for now, in God's name?" I asked.
"That's more than I can tell you," he called back, "Except I have the seven cares of the mountain on my shoulders, with no end of things to do, and I'm making a start on none of them."
"It is often before now that a man pitched away his last and his awls when he had too much to face," said I.
"I'm in the same case," Sean answered. "There are people gathering seaweed.* I need turf. I have sheep to dip. I need flour. I have a wall to repair. I have a shed to rebuild. I have a trawl-line to see to and a net to prepare. I left the house now to have a day away from it all, for I couldn't decide which should be tackled first."
-- from the journals of Tomas O'Crohan of Blasket Island, February 1920, as reprinted in Island Cross-Talk.
* Seaweed was spread over fields as fertiliser.
Friday, 16 January 2015
When I and several others were helping build the cob house in County Clare a few years ago, some of us took a break for tea. As we walked back to the shelter across the wildflower fields, though, some of the other workers started picking various flowers along the way and piling them into baskets. The containers were full by the time they arrived at the kettle, and the workers quickly rinsed the plants, dropped them into a pitcher and poured boiling water over them, and in a few minutes had instant herbal tea.
You can do this yourself at home with any number of local plants, but some are particularly well-suited and easy to identify:
• Mint grows wild in forests and hedgerows, and is one of the easiest crops for amateurs – as the saying goes, you drop the seeds in soil and jump back. Its cooling tea is much used in warmer climates like Morocco, helping people without air conditioning stay as cool as possible.
• Clover: The white and purple flowers are ubiquitous across the summer fields of Europe and America, and the flowers and leaves can be gathered for a delicious tea.
• Dandelion makes a good, nutritious tea without the bitter flavor of dandelion leaves. It also acts as a diuretic, as you can tell from “piss-a-bed” and other folk names for the herb.
• Bramble: Our hedgerows and fences are covered in thorny brambles, and not only do they offer natural barbed-wire security all year long and blackberries in autumn, but the spring shoots make a blackberry-scented tea loaded with vitamin C.
• Nettles: I have several plastic bins filled with nettle tea, which I make by picking nettle shoots and drying them – you can do it the old-fashioned way, over a stove or fire, or the modern lazy way with a microwave.
• Chamomile flowers create a famously relaxing tea, as does valerian. • Fennel, dill and anise – all liquorice-flavoured plants – make teas that help upset stomachs.
• Sage, oregano, thyme and many other herbs can all be made into strongly-flavoured teas, and we have used them a great deal lately for colds and coughs.
• Linden or lime leaves make great tea in spring, when they are shoots.
You don’t need to make just one kind of tea – take a variety of herbs and mix them together, perhaps with a bit of honey or fruit juice. Remember that you generally need a lot of leaves to give boiling water taste and colour – black tea comes from a particularly strong-tasting plant, further strengthened by being smoked, dried and powdered. With living leaves fresh off the vine or stalk, pack them into a jar or container almost to the rim before pouring boiling water over them.
Do be careful never to take plants from a field unless you know that it has never been sprayed with any pesticides. Most of these, of course, make a slightly green tea that tastes very different than black tea, and would not take milk. One exception is rooibos or redbush, which tastes and looks very like black tea, takes milk and is naturally caffeine-free. It’s available in most stores in tea bags, so try it if you feel like tea in the evenings.
You can make your own tea blends out of conventional black tea, of course. Earl Grey, for example, is black tea with a bit of bergamot oil. If you feel experimentitive, add different kinds of juice or plants to regular tea and see what you like. Whatever you make, it will probably be nearly free and better for you than soda or any of the varieties of fake juice on the market.
Photo: The Girl flying a kite in a field of tea.
Wednesday, 14 January 2015
The oats were ripe around this time and ready for cutting. Oats were important – like potatoes, the main food of the people. When the corn (oats) was ripe the men cut it with hooks and tied it into sheaves, long enough to handle.
It was then stoked, six to eight sheaves standing on end, supporting each other. The stooks were left in the field for a time before they were brought into the haggard and stores in stacks and covered.
Threshing was an unbelievable feat of endurance. The barn was cleared and the flagged floor scrubbed clean. Neighbours who knew the art of wielding a flail commenced. The flail was made of two strong sticks tied together at one end with leather. The sheaves were put into the centre of the floor in bundles of five or six. Each man wielded the flail in turn until the oats were separated from the straw.
The oats went into sacks and the straw for thatching. It was the work of a few nights. Next came the winnowing – getting rid of the chaff. It would have to be a special sort of day for this work with the wind blowing."
-- Memories of Kathleen Sheehan, growing up in County Cavan circa 1920. Recorded in the book No Shoes in Summer.
Monday, 12 January 2015
Some old pubs, though, maintain their traditions, and each retains its own long-standing rules. A few still feature the traditional Irish music of local singers like Christy Moore, and some have bands that play in the evenings while all the locals sing along. This pub, on the other hand, bans all music, so the patrons can hear each other.
Ron Wood of the Rolling Stones used to live nearby, and one night, I'm told, he came into the pub with Mick Jagger, Keith Richards and their instruments. The elderly publican scowls at them and tells them not to start playing the instruments, or they’ll be kicked out.
One by one, though, people in the pub work up the courage to come over to the Stones and ask them for a tune. Finally Keith Richards relents and strums a few chords on his guitar, and the old pub owner orders them out of the establishment.
“But don’t you know who this is?” the people ask the pub owner. “This is Keith Richards!”
“I don’t know who that is," the owner said, "but I don’t care if it’s Christy Moore, he’s not playing in my pub!”
Saturday, 10 January 2015
We live by the grace of invertebrates. They work around the clock, collect and dispose of our waste, replenish the soil, feed animals above them on the food chain and allow plants to return each spring. Most importantly, perhaps, bees, butterflies and other insects deliver valentines between plants, which must procreate but cannot move, and so rely on couriers. Flowers grow for the benefit of these pollinators, not us, and bloom in more colours than we can see – only insects’ superior eyes can see all their shades and patterns.
Now, of course, humans have changed the face of the world; we have levelled forests, eliminated thousands of species in a field in favour of a single crop, and sprayed those crops with a cocktail of exotic poisons never before seen on Earth. After several decades of this, bee populations are collapsing around the world, and while we do not know the specific causes, we know that areas that have been heavily hit with pesticides have also seen serious collapses. In a few areas of China, farmers have begun laboriously pollinating cash crops like pears by hand, taking brushes from flower to flower – a method that would not be feasible for most survival crops should the problem spread.
This time of year, as those of us in the northern hemisphere plan our gardens and sow our first seeds, we must remember to invest part of our garden to reimburse the armies that work for us. What sorts of armies you have, and what payment they accept, will vary depending on where you live: our forest here has bluebells and my Missouri hometown had mimosas, but the principles should remain the same.
You could bring pollinators in by the box-load if you keep bees, and you get honey and wax from the arrangement. Bee hives can be kept easily on a small plot of land, a backyard, a balcony or even a rooftop, so long as the bees’ flight path to and from their headquarters is located away from humans’ personal space. They tend to like simple flowers with an easy landing pad, like poached-egg flower, daisies or dandelions, and our local beekeepers recommend putting out water for them as well.
Honeybees, however, are only one of 20,000 species of bee in the world, and we can encourage the rest of them as well. They don’t give us honey or wax but they do pollinate our gardens – sometimes more effectively, according to some experts – and many are stingless. Dozens of species are bumblebees, which live in small colonies, but most are solitary, often named according to where they make their hole – miners, carpenters, masons and plasterers.
Depending on the type of bees in your area, you might want to leave a rim of unmown weeds around your property, or plant or maintain a hedgerow that can give ground bees a place to shelter. Some gardeners give bees a pre-made home --boring holes in wood or stacking reeds or bamboo for carpenter or orchard bees, stacking adobe bricks for mason bees or building a small, cotton-lined box with a large entrance hole for bumblebees.
If you want to plant for bees and other pollinators, you need to plant foods that bloom in early spring and late autumn, the off-season months when bees struggle to find enough food. Snowdrops, crocuses and daffodils are emerging now in our gardens, giving bees their first taste of nectar for the year as honey stores run low. Ling heather, the plant used to make thick heather honey, does the opposite, blooming after everything else has gone. Ivy, similarly, grows up every tree and building here, and blooms as late as Halloween.
One of the champion bee flowers, in our experience, is borrage – our bees go nuts for it. It also makes a great herb to add to salad, with a tangy melony flavour. We find that verbena draws legions of bees and butterflies--- my wife and mother-in-law bought some from a garden store after seeing one covered with them last spring. Almost all herbs, in fact, make great bee fodder – thyme, rosemary, oregano, marjoram, sage and mint.
Hedgerows, the ubiquitous borders here, often provide the best source of bee flowers. Blackberry brambles, in hundreds of varieties, grow widely here and make another flower beloved of bees, and of course they grow in the margins where their thorns and the bees are out of your way. Sally or pussy willows seem to be a particular favourite of bumblebees in our observation – at times we have seen dozens of bumblebees on a single tree near our house. They also love hawthorn, which grows rampant here and usually starts flowering in May – it’s sometimes called the May bush.
Come summer, whole fields here erupt with red and white clover, which have many uses -- bees love them, we and animals can eat them, and they actually put nitrogen back into the soil. They like moist earth and warm days, and beekeepers say that, once the flowers emerge, their beehives start filling up with honey. Oilseed Rape, which Americans call canola, has been widely introduced as a biofuel crop here, and turns some fields a brilliant yellow every spring.
Bees and other bugs use many other flowers common to our area, and which our local beekeeping society recommends – poppies, cornflowers, forget-me-nots, zinnias, wallflowers, bellflowers, dahlias, hellebores and roses. In exchange they service many vegetables, including artichokes, lamb’s ears, asparagus, brassicas, broad beans, cucumbers, cherries, apples, currants, gooseberries and courgettes.
You can draw insects other than bees to your garden, of course, but you want to be choosy about which ones. We all love butterflies, but they spend most of their lives as the caterpillars that we spend picking off our crops, so you want to encourage only those species that eat the plants you don’t want anyway.
Few words sound less appealing than “parasite” and “wasp,” yet parasitic wasps can be very useful in the garden, preying on the bugs that would eat your plants and doing no harm to humans. Sally Jean Cunningham, author of Great Garden Companions, cite herbs like caraway, anise, mint, chamomile, dill, fennel, yarrow and cicely for drawing wasps, along with wildflowers like cornspurrey, lamb’s quarters, wild mustards, oxeyes, red sorrel and clover. Similarly, some gardeners buy ladybirds (ladybugs to Americans) to unleash on their aphids, or even recommend planting nettles to attract aphids to attract ladybirds.
Finally, you can plant species designed to repel certain insects you don’t want – many gardeners recommend hyssop and thyme for cabbage moths, or marigolds for nematodes. Such recommendations often carry a high folklore-to-evidence ratio, though, so experiment in your own garden and take notes on what seems to work.
As David Attenborough once pointed out, if we and other large animals were to disappear, the vast majority of the world that remained would get along just fine. But if they were to disappear, the soil would become sterile, the lands desert, and almost all life would perish. As you walk through your garden, thousands of them are labouring like elves around your feet, unthanked and occasionally swatted. As you plant your garden this year, make sure to give something back.
Wednesday, 7 January 2015
Tuesday, 6 January 2015
We kept well busy over the holidays: we worked in the garden, chopped wood, took care of the chickens, read, played board games and card games, and generally relaxed. Most of all, I got time with The Girl, something I get too little of during the regular work week. Most days I work in Dublin, and spend three hours a day on the bus to get there and back. When I get home I have only a couple of hours with The Girl to eat, talk, sing folk songs, answer quiz questions, and go over the lessons I create for her – I can’t home-school, but I “after-school,” teaching her things she won’t learn in mainstream education. Only after we finish those do we read, and that’s not a lot of time.
Mind you, she reads a lot of pre-teen material on her own, but she prefers to have my help in reading Lord of the Rings, with its obscure terms and deliberately archaic style. At half an hour a night, though, we took two months to get through The Fellowship of the Ring – but with a bit of extra time each day, we’ve flown through the first half of The Two Towers over the holidays. The novel picks up the pace, of course, and she’s getting better at reading it, but mostly it’s just more time to devote to it.
We could have gone faster if our goal was to finish quickly, but Tolkien’s works inspired an entire genre of fiction for a reason – his universe is richly drawn and complex, filled with subtle challenges, and about once a night we get side-tracked. Those are the best parts.
“I love the elves,” she said. “I wish there were more of them in their world.” And in ours, I said. There used to be vast empires of elves in that world, but by the time these books are happening, though, their numbers and powers have dwindled – most were killed in wars or passed into the West.
“Was there a die-off?” she said.
Our lessons have been going over this concept a lot lately; anything that grows exponentially, at a certain percentage per year, hits a limit at some point – when it’s a living organism, the result is usually a die-off. So-called R species like bacteria or frogs incorporate such a cycle into their basic survival strategy, whereas larger and (potentially) more intelligent living things like us try to avoid it. The yeast in my beer vat do that until the sugar has become alcohol, and then they all die, having consumed all their resources and poisoned their environment. When a tree falls in the forest near us, weeds spring up to compete for the light, growing rapidly until a few have won the high ground, spread their leaves to capture the prize of sunlight, and starve the many who could not compete.
I’m sure it was different for the elves, I told her, for they didn’t grow exponentially, or much at all. Even if Tolkien doesn’t use the terms I teach you from systems theory, he used those concepts. Anything evil in his universe – orcs or those giant spiders, for example – multiplies rapidly over the world, using up resources and not caring what they leave behind.
Good characters like elves, ents or hobbits, by contrast, seem to have stable populations – he doesn’t give census counts, but he describes their communities remaining the same for ages. They know their land, treat their trees and rivers with respect, and use no more than they need. They are the ultimate conservatives, in the traditional sense. The great tragedies in the book are when someone gives in to the temptation to get more.
Tolkien was roundly criticised by later fantasy writers, I thought, for reducing conflicts to good and evil, each clearly labelled and evil predictably ugly. To his credit, though, he portrays good and evil not merely as sides, but as behaviours. When the good side got the Ring of Power, they could have easily won and controlled the world themselves, but they refrained from using it – that defined them as good. When the wizard Saruman turned evil, by contrast, it wasn’t just that he switched sides – he decided to try to gain power over others. That was what made him a villain, no matter how good his intentions.
Just that quality alone puts the famously Catholic Tolkien leagues above many “Christian” writers today; in the Left Behind series, for example, the good characters are clearly labelled, but labels are all they have: they behave callously and selfishly through the entire series. It doesn’t seem to be any deliberate irony on the part of the authors, either – the authors seem to think that being good means being on the good side, not the other way around.
“That explains the elves,” The Girl said, returning me to her original point, “But there used to be a lot more people in that world too – I mean, humans. It’s covered in ruined towers and such, and someone had to build all those things.”
You made an important point, I said. The Lord of the Rings, and the entire fantasy genre it inspired, is set in a Dark Age, a depopulated age of overgrown towers and wild dangers. Generations of people have grown up reading pseudo-medieval fantasy books, seeing sword-and-sorcery films, playing Dungeons and Dragons or some video-game equivalent, to the point that we know the universe by heart: pseudo-medieval technology, peaceful villages, ruined castles, abandoned dungeons, and items of power from a bygone age.
What no one ever mentions about such a universe, however, is that its present must be a state of deep decline from whatever empires once built those castles and dungeons, and had the technology to create “magical” items. We don’t think of them this way, but they are as much post-collapse stories as The Road Warrior or A Canticle for Liebowitz. In a way, this was not surprising; Tolkien was an expert on ancient myths, from the Norse Eddas to the Nibelungenlied to Arthurian legends, and most of those took place in the centuries after Rome fell. Dark Ages seem to be when many sagas are written.
Also unsurprising is how much of this standard fantasy world looks like Ireland, from the vaguely Celtic soundtrack of many films to the thatched-roof villages where hobbits and boys live before destiny calls. Ireland really does have the medieval ruins everywhere, for a simple reason: This land once had its own miniature empires, the land was once heavily forested, and before the Famine, the island held twice as many people as it does today. Real catastrophes aren't as appealing as their fictional counterparts.
I mention some of this to The Girl, but much of it we've covered before. “After empires like that fall apart, there’s an Age of Heroes, right?”
That's the phrase I use, I said -- that's where a lot of hero stories get started. Lots of people are quietly heroic in every era - there are heroes all around you that you don't see -- but when life is comfortable, the stakes aren't as high. When things fall apart --- and they do for everyone, sooner or later – people face emergencies, and need to be heroic. In the Lord of the Rings world, the elves have seen that happen many times – maybe that’s why they’re so good.
“But they’re really powerful,” she said. “When terrible things happen in their world, why don’t they do more to stop them?”
Occasionally they do, I said, but generally they don’t try to control others; too much of that and they wouldn’t be good anymore. Instead, they set an example for others to follow, and they take care of their part of the world as long as they can. Remember what Galadriel said about her part of the woods? ‘…through all the ages of the world we have fought the long defeat.’ They know they’ll fade eventually, but that doesn’t matter; what matters is they maintained their part of the world and kept it wholesome. That was worth living for.
“I want to be like that someday,” she said.
I’ll do what I can to help, I said.
Wednesday, 24 December 2014
Mary O’Sullivan: Christmas was a very big event then – now it’s a big event commercially, but then it was a big event from a different perspective. It was the time of year when – we talk about spring cleaning now, but then it was the Christmas cleaning. In the run-up to Christmas the dishes were taken down off the dressers, all the cobwebs were knocked down and windows were cleaned and the whole place was whitewashed.
My father was born on a farm about a mile from the village, and had a significantly different upbringing to my mother in the village, and my father used to say that Christmas on a farm was a very big event – this was before electrification, in the era of the tilly lamp. People didn’t just hop into the car and go to town – most people wouldn’t have had a car, just a horse and trap if they were lucky or a donkey and trap. So they would have only gone to town a few times a year, and going before Christmas was a major event.
On Christmas Eve there was the lighting of the candle – a big red wax candle, put into a jam jar filled with sand, ringed with holly and lit by the youngest member of the household. Then the neighbours rambled in.
The concept of rambling went out with the advent of television, but it was how people entertained themselves in the 20s, 30s, 40s. They walked to one another’s houses at night time and talked about what had happened during the week, weddings, funerals, wakes and local affairs, and someone would get out an accordion and tell stories and sing songs.
Ray O’Sullivan: Christmas Eve was a fast day, and all we could eat was salted ling fish, and it tasted terrible. People dreaded the thought of it from about October, but it was nearly like a penance. It used to hang in the fishmongers and you got the smell off it.
Christmas Eve was like good Friday is now, (with all shops closed - BK), and that was just in the mid-1970s and 80s, and it’s funny how quickly things have changed in such a short time.
The O'Sullivans were interviewed by RTE radio about the Christmases of their childhoods, December. 2009. Photo: The canal outside our house a few winters ago.
Friday, 19 December 2014
I am writing this on the Saturday before Christmas; Christmas Eve is tomorrow. The people who have gone out to the mainland have not yet returned yet on account of the bad weather. ‘Maybe,’ the children say, ‘the bad weather will ruin the Holy Night.’
The people of this village have made a trip to the hill and a sheep for nigh every household has been slaughtered. I suppose those who have such delicacies will share them with the neighbours; the established custom here is for everyone to share, except that we are seeing many changes in the world now, where there had been none for a long time."
-- From the diaryof Thomas O'Crohan, on Blasket Island, 1922.